A DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (No of pages: 90)
OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
HARDAWARE AND SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION
OVERVIEW OF PRIOR STUDIES
OVERVIEW OF MODULE
CIRCUIT BOARD DESIGN
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION
DISCUSSION AND RESULTS
Networks of wireless sensor devices are being deployed to collectively monitor and disseminate information about a variety of phenomena of interest. Wireless networks have changed the way we look at computing. Unlike the concept of reactive computing, these networks usher in proactive computing by using intelligent sensors called ‘motes’ or ‘nodes’. Unlike standard networking gear, wireless sensors can reorganize themselves to form a network and convey meaningful data. These motes have the capability to reorganize themselves into a network and transmit data that can range from measuring light, temperature, humidity or even motion. Communication of signals is carried out using radio frequency (RF) waves.
- To learn planning and operation of wireless networks.
- To study various wireless LAN and WAN concepts
- To build and simulate a simple wireless sensor network with two nodes (one sensor node and onesink)
- Primary Objective of WSN routing protocols are Power consumption, reliability and Congestion control.
- To demonstrate that a complete sensor system can be integrated into tiny devices
- The key objective is to establish a wireless link between the Base Station and the Remote Sensor Node.
This problem could be found in almost any part of a sensor node and the sensor network. In computing subsystem, MCU’s have various operating modes. The power of these modes should be carefully considered to prolong the lifetime of the network. In addition, another kind of consumption of power which cannot be ignored is the changing between these modes. Communication is a major consumer of energy, especially in RX and TX mode. However, radio standing in IDLE mode still consumes as high power as in RX mode. And again, startup in some cases and changing in the radio’s operation mode can consume a large amount of power.
A wireless sensor device is a battery-operated device, capable of sensing physical quantities. In addition to sensing, it is capable of wireless communication, data storage, and a limited amount of computation and signal processing. Advances in integrated circuit design are continually shrinking the size, weight and cost of sensor devices, while simultaneously improving their resolution and accuracy. At the same time, modern wireless networking technologies enable the coordination and networking of a large number of such devices. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of a large number of wireless sensor devices working collaboratively to achieve a common objective. A WSN has one or more sinks (or Base Stations) which collect data from all sensor devices. These sinks are the interface through which the WSN interacts with the outside world. The basic premise of a WSN is to perform networked sensing using a large number of relatively unsophisticated sensors, instead of the conventional approach of deploying a few expensive and sophisticated sensing modules.
MODELLING OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS:
- The most generic model for a WSN is based on the data gathering and communication capabilities of sensors. If each sensor has a unique address, then some available layered models such as OS can be used, with some modifications, to model the WSN. However, uniqueness of addresses may not be feasible or even required. In that case, a model can be developed based on the following assumptions:
- Initially, all the sensors have identical capabilities.
- The sensors are anonymous: they lack unique identifier (e.g. addresses).
- Several sensors can create a region (group): anonymity of a sensor in a sensor network dictates the creation of regions.
The hardware designed is highly reliable. The hardware delivered satisfactory performance for almost 100% of the time. Out of an approximate 50 times that the hardware was switched on for operation, it functioned 49 times perfectly as it should be working.
The results obtained are comparable to industrial and commercial standards.
During testing a range of 100m (LOS) was achieved. It worked indoor range of 10m as desired. However, keeping in mind that power transmitted has been limited to the minimum since numerous such low power sensors will be deployed in the same area, it is safe to assume that the range available is satisfactory.
METHODOLOGY TO BE USED:
The research design used in this project is Analytical in nature the procedure using, which researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the performance.
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The data collection method in this research is questionnaire method. The data will be systematically recorded from the respondents.
DATA COLLECTION SOURCES:
The data would be collected through Primary and secondary sources both.
The primary data will be collected from the discussion with developer, data’s collected through questionnaire.
Secondary data would be collected from records, internet, journals, magazines and books, internet.
A well defined questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system.
A structured questionnaire will be prepared to get the relevant information from the respondents. The questionnaire will consist of a variety of questions presented to the respondents for their despondence.
Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties (Age, weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice.
The sample size for this study will be 100 employees.
In this research, the sampling methods will be used are Random sampling, Convenience sampling and Snowball sampling.
STATISTICAL TOOLS USED
- Percentage analysis
- Pie diagrams
- ROUTING SIGNALS